Bibliography (4/2)

Wood, D. (2010). Rethinking the power of maps. Guilford Press.

I found this book by searching Google Scholar for texts citing The Power of Maps. The abstract I found listed this as a “contemporary follow-up” to Wood’s original publication, offering a “fresh look at what maps do, whose interests they serve, and how they can be used in surprising, creative, and radical ways” (Amazon Book Review). This book was cited 377 times. [JS]

Crampton, J. W. (2001). Maps as social constructions: power, communication and visualization. Progress in Human Geography25(2), 235-252.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing The Power of Maps. This seems to be an extension of Wood’s ideas and focuses on how maps can be problematic communication devices. The two major developments this article brings forward are “1) investigations of maps as practices of power-knowledge; and 2) ‘geographic visualization’ (GVis) which uses the map’s power to explore, analyze and visualize spatial datasets to understand patterns better” (Article Abstract). This article was cited 368 times. [JS]

Kitchin, R., & Dodge, M. (2007). Rethinking maps. Progress in human geography31(3), 331-344.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing The Power of Maps. This article narrows the focus of Crampton’s article, claiming that cartography is “profitably conceived as a processual, rather than representational, science” (Article Abstract). The piece asks about map security ontologically – and argues that there is no secure ontological status. This article was cited 370 times. [JS]

Harris, L. M., & Hazen, H. D. (2005). Power of maps:(Counter) mapping for conservation. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies4(1), 99-130.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing The Power of Maps. This article looks at how defining and mapping geologically protected areas for conservation links to “themes from political ecology, social natures, and conservation biology literatures to extend our understanding of maps as reflective of, and productive of, power” (Article Abstract). This article was cited 116 times. [JS]

Wood, D. (1993). The Fine Line Between Mapping and Map Making. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization30(4), 50-60.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing The Power of Maps. Written by Wood, this article is responding to “Brian Harley’s efforts to re-form the history and theory of cartography” (Article Abstract). Wood argues that Harley was erroneously “dazzled” and “inspired” by Continental thinkers but failed to effectively argue for “cartography embodying the self-conscious awareness only an honest, living history could provide.” This article was cited 58 times. [JS]

Bibliography Entry

Gray, J., Bounegru, L., Milan, S., & Ciuccarelli, P. (2016). Ways of Seeing Data: Toward a Critical Literacy for Data Visualizations as Research Objects and Research Devices. In Innovative Methods in Media and Communication Research (pp. 227-251). Springer International Publishing. 

Gray, Bounegru, Milan, Ciuccarelli argue for a reflection on visual rhetoric methodology. They propose a heuristic framework of reflection drawing upon the following: new media studies, science and technology studies, the history and philosophy of science, and cultural studies and critical theory.

Lohse, J., Rueter, H., Biolsi, K., & Walker, N. (1990, October). Classifying visual knowledge representations: A foundation for visualization research. In Visualization, 1990. Visualization’90., Proceedings of the First IEEE Conference on (pp. 131-138). IEEE. 

This piece proved to be a useful addition to Drucker’s Graphesis. Classifying research visualizations as graphs and tables, maps, diagrams, networks, and icons, the authors note that spatial information and cognitive processing effort differentiate the “homogenous clusters,” or the classifications of visual representations in research.

Van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Towards a semiotics of typography. Information design journal, 14(2), 139-155. 

I based my poster off of Van Leeuwen’s piece on typography. Van Leeuwen argues that typography is no longer “a craft of the written word,” but a visual rhetoric in itself. He provides a classification system and ways in which to interpret its characteristics.

Hocks, M. E. (2003). Understanding visual rhetoric in digital writing environments. College composition and communication, 629-656. 

Hocks comments on the importance of an awareness of visual rhetoric when teaching composition, but most notably, in “digital writing environments.” Hocks emphasizes the visual representation of text on the internet, and how understanding audience stance, transparency, and hibridity can help writers and students channel visual rhetoric principles when forming online documentation.

Brumberger, E. R. (2005). Visual rhetoric in the curriculum: Pedagogy for a multimodal workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318-333.

Brumberger comments on the lack of visual rhetoric training in business courses. By lacking visual rhetoric education, students (as professionals) are unable to utilize and mediate multimodal environments. Brumberger suggests adding courses, integrating visual communications, and contextualizing (in business settings) existing design projects to improve on this issue.


Abbott, Edwin Abbott. Flatland: A Romance in Many Dimensions. London: Seeley, 1884. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1952.

On the surface, Flatland is a quaint story about A. Square, resident of the two-dimensional Flatland, exploring different lands of different dimensions.  The book, moreover, is an analysis on the effects of different perspectives within different spaces, and how those perspectives conform or disconnect to the worldview of others. [CR]

Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Campbell explores the commonality between different themes throughout many different mythologies.  The main theme is the hero’s journey, or the main character’s development from inexperienced youth to wise master.  How this journey is portrayed is analyzed through the difference perspectives. [CR]

Gravett, Paul. Graphics Novels: Everything You Need to Know. New York: Collins Design, 2005.

Gravett analyzes the effectiveness of the medium of graphic novels through his exploration of thirty of the most prolific ones.  Through those examples, the author discusses different themes, influences from outside of the United States, and even how to view graphic novels. [CR]

Latour, Bruno. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

As the title of the book implies, Latour introduces the concept of Actor-Network-Theory, where objects participate in the construction of social objectives.  Latour argues for this viewpoint as opposed to the one where the social is just a collection of viewpoints applied to certain situations. [CR]

Shlain, Leonard. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time, and Light. New York: Morrow, 1991.

Although art and physics may seem diametrically opposed, Shlain explores in his book that they are more connected than people will acknowledge.  He analyzes the development of both throughout history, revealing how art has often predicted the trajectory of the development of physics. [CR]

Bibliography 3/13/17 (Unflattening)


Vasudevan, L., & Rodriguez Kerr, K. (2016). “Unflattening” Our Ways of Seeing, Reading, and Writing. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy60(1), 103-105.

Vasudevan and Rodriguez’s piece, which I found while using the Halle Library database to search for works that cited Nick Sousanis’ Unflattening, focuses on the messages of expanded ways of seeing in knowledge construction that are contained in the pages of Unflattening. They assert that Unflattening seeks to literally unflatten conceptions of meaning, reading, and writing through an active embrace of multimodality in its integration of images, design, and various genres of written text [RN-J].

Bahl, E. K. (2015). Comics and Scholarship: Sketching the Possibilities. Composition Studies43(1), 178.

Bahl’s piece, which I found while using the Halle Library database to search for works that cited Nick Sousanis’ Unflattening, suggests that fusions between comics and scholarship can (1) fruitfully challenge definitions of scholarly genres, offers resources for designing arguments in digital environments, and invites all who practice scholarly composing to reflect critically upon their mediating decisions [RN-J].

Causey, A. (2016). Drawn to See: Drawing as an Ethnographic Method. University of Toronto Press.

Causey’s piece, which I found while using google scholar to search for works that cited Nick Sousanis’ Unflattening, offers insights and practical techniques for social scientists interested in exploring drawing as a way of translating what they “see” during their research. Causey cites Sousanis’ method of using dots to communicate that the tops were spinning on page 16 of Unflattening [RN-J].

Lehman, Barbara. (2015). Visual Literacy and Education: Seeing the World Meets Critical Thinking. UCLA: Education 0249. Retrieved from:

Lehman’s piece, which I found while using google scholar to search for works that cited Nick Sousanis’ Unflattening, asserts that “seeing” needs to become an actively conscious activity rather than a passive one. She stresses the importance of critical visual literacy, and cites how Sousanis is expanding the understanding of the role of the visual in academia by bridging the worlds of academic study and popular visual culture [RN-J].                  

Pelaprat, E., & Cole, M. (2011). “Minding the gap”: imagination, creativity and human cognition. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 45(4), 397+. Retrieved from

Pelaprat’s piece, which I found while using google scholar to search for works that Sousanis’ referenced in his bibliography for Unflattening, draws on the work of L.S. Vygotsky to develop a cultural-historical approach to the study of imagination as central to human cognitive processes, and argues that a cultural-historical approach to image formation is important for understanding how imagination and creativity are distinct, yet inter-penetrating processes [RN-J].

Bibliographic Entries – 3/13

Hall, S. (1997). The work of representation. In S. Hall (ed)., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage, pp. 13-74.

This book chapter, which is available here, was recommended as further reading by Gillian Rose. Hall defines representation, and explains how and why it is an an integral part of the way people produce and exchange meaning across cultures. Hall also explores the constructionist approach of meaning making and the prominent impact it has had on cultural studies. [NW]

Evans, J. and Hall, S. (1999). Visual Culture: The Reader. London: Sage in association with The Open University.

Rose lists this book for further reading because it is a collection of multidisciplinary key texts that have shaped the field of visual culture. A central idea of this book is that there are three core concepts involved in studying visual culture: the sign, the institution, and the viewing. Evans and Hall explore how visuals are studied using these three concepts, and also put these concepts in conversation with cultural theory and rhetoric. [NW]

Foster, H. (ed.) (1988). Vision and Visuality. Seattle: Bay Press.

A PDF of this book, which was recommended for further reading by Rose, is available here. The book’s chapters offer deeper insight into the nuances of vision and visuality–otherwise known as scopic regimes. The texts compiled in this book work to suggest ways that deepen our understanding of vision, to socialize vision, to explore the subjectivity of vision in production and interpretation, and to historicize vision’s practices and resistances. [NW]

Mirzoeff, N. (2006). On visuality. Journal of Visual Culture, 5(1), 53-79.

I found this source by searching “visuality” in EMU’s E-search database. Mirzoeff argues that although many people believe visuality became a keyword for the visual culture field as a result of postmodern theory, it was actually originated by Thomas Carlyle, a Scottish historian. Mirzoeff frames “visuality” historically, drawing attention to the ways it was originally used to represent and resist imperial culture. [NW]

Kaszynski, E. (2016). ‘Look, a [picture]!’: Visuality, race, and what we do not see. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 102(1), pp. 62-78. doi:
I found this source by searching “visuality” in EMU’s E-search database. This article argues that perceiving vision and visuality as connected, but distinct, impacts the way we are able to interpret racial identity constructs. Kaszynski argues that moving past vision along creates a more comprehensive understanding of racial construction in the 21st century United States. [NW]

3/6 Bibliography

When I searched “Welcome to Pine Point” on Google Scholar, only four sources have cited it, and they are all listed below. In addition to these scholarly sources, I also included the website, Pine Point Revisited. This is the website that was discussed at the end of Welcome to Pine Point. [HD]

Harley, D., & Lachman, R. (2014). CHI PLAY 2014: The bellman: Subtle interactions in a linear narrative. Proceedings of the First ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, 343-346.

This source is challenging to find information about, because it was published in the conference proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGCHI Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, held in Canada. It also seems as though the PDF needs to be purchased to be viewed in full. However, the abstract says that the paper presents an internet adaption of a novella and it details how interaction affects narrative.

Kiuttu, S. (2013). Integrate multimedia, make fingers happy: Journalistic storytelling on tablets. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford. Retrieved from,%20MAKE%20FINGERS%20HAPPY-%20JOURNALISTIC%20STORYTELLING%20ON%20TABLETS.pdf

This 2013 Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper is a 42-page document that describes how stories are told through the use of tablets. The major sections of the paper include the background of tablets, key characteristics of storytelling on tablets, a comparative analysis with genres such as newspaper apps, and a look at the future of tablet storytelling. Welcome to Pine Point is discussed briefly at the end of the report, and is used as an example of multimedia narration.

Pine Point Revisited. (2015). Retrieved from

This website was created and maintained by former Pine Point resident Richard Cloutier, who used to be “The Bully” and is now referred to as “The Protector.” The website has not been updated since 2015, but it seems to offer more pictures and history, in addition to what was provided in Welcome to Pine Point.

Pope, J. (2013). The way ahead: The teaching of hyper-narrative at Bournemouth University. New Writing: The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing, 10(2), 206-218.

This article is aimed at writers and teachers who want to learn about creative writing and its connections to new-media. The author also wants to bring awareness to “hyper-narrative,” which includes more sophisticated multi-media writing and design tools that can be used to create interactive narratives. The article discusses ways to create multi-media stories and describes software to do so.

Wong, A. (2015). The whole story, and then some: ‘Digital storytelling’ in evolving museum practice. MW2015: Museums and the Web 2015. Retrieved from

The author explores digital storytelling and argues that it is actually unproductive. The abstract says that Wong does argue for museums to invest in “developing staff as storytellers with fluency in the narrative capacities afforded by the interactions between people, space, content, and technology.” The abstract also mentions that museums also need to think about storytelling as spatial; mobile; location, context, and audience aware; interactive; transmedial; and intermedial.

Bibliography Entry 2/27

Valerie V. Peterson (2001) The rhetorical criticism of visual elements: An alternative to Foss’s Schema, Southern Communication Journal, 67:1, 19-32, DOI: 10.1080/10417940109373216

I found this article when looking for sources that would continue the discussion of Sonja Foss’s Theory of Visual Rhetoric through Halle library’s esearch (it can also be found on Google Scholar.) Valerie Peterson discusses the strength of Sonja Foss’s rhetorical schema (1994). The article is a starting place that presents the first of its kind on proposing an evaluation of visual imagery from a rhetorical perspective. [JW]

Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature, and method. Berkeley: University of California Press.

This book is cited not only in Foss’s article but several articles that discuss visual rhetorics, rhetorical theory, and images. You can pick up this book at the Halle library or find critiques of Kenneth Burke’s essays on Google Scholar. The book itself includes essays on symbolism, rhetorical criticism, and how symbolic action can be understood in non-traditional ways. [JW]

Chryslee, G. J., Foss, S. K., & Ranney, A. L. (1996). The construction of claims in visual argumentation. Visual Communication Quarterly, 3(2), 9-13.

This was cited in Foss’s article and can be found on Google Scholar with limited access. It presents a case that viewers construct claims for images, assuming an audience-centered perspective on the creation of images which situates the viewer as the dominant factor in the construction of arguments of images. I find this perspective valid in some aspects of critiquing an image but further investigation should be sought out on the process. [JW]

Bateman, J. (2014). Text and image: A critical introduction to the visual/verbal divide. Routledge.

This book was found when looking for articles citing Sonja Foss on Google Scholar. A book review can be found @EMU Find Text through the Halle Library database. In his introduction, Bateman describes how text and images have been critiqued separately by scholars but no frameworks consider both image and text in their methods.[JW]

Gries, L. E. (2013). Iconographic tracking: A digital research method for visual rhetoric and circulation studies. Computers and Composition, 30(4), 332-348.

This article presents a research method for studying rhetorical circulation; how images circulate in digital spaces. Laurie Gries incorporates traditional qualitative and new digital research strategies to track the Obama Hope image which was conducted after a five-year long case study of tracking the image across genres, mediums, and contexts. In terms of visual rhetorics, circulation studies consider how images travel through geographic locations, space, and time. [JW]


Bibliography (2/26)

Bowen, T. (2017). Assessing visual literacy: a case study of developing a rubric for identifying and applying criteria to undergraduate student learning. Teaching in Higher Education, 1-15.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing Graphesis. Bowen’s piece focuses on multi-modal literacy assessments in higher education. Bowen claims that assessments from this perspective “have not moved much beyond the traditional written texts outside art and design disciplines.” Bowen proposes a Visual Literacy Competency (VLC) rubric and offers suggestions for assignment assessment in two undergraduate communications courses. [JS]

Lorber-Kasunic, J., & Sweetapple, K. (2015). Visualising texts: a design practice approach to humanities data. In Digital Research in the Humanities and Arts Conference. DRHA.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing Graphesis. Lorber-Kasunic and Sweetapple’s piece addresses the fact that many forms of visual representation do not reflect core concerns of humanities research because they operate using the conceptual and visual language of scientific positivism. The authors argue that metaphorical and analogical approaches to textual visualization may better serve the cause from a humanities focus. [JS]

Danesi, M. (2016). The Semiotics of Emoji: The Rise of Visual Language in the Age of the Internet. Bloomsbury Publishing.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing Graphesis. Danesi’s book elaborates on the use of emojis from a meaning-making, or semiotic, perspective. The book avoids the use of technical lexicon and some notions of theoretical semiotics so that a lay audience more easily understands it. Danesi posits that the use of emoji code may indicate how writing and literacy are evolving. [JS]

Gorichanaz, T. & Latham, K.F. (2016). Document phenomenology: a framework for holistic analysis. Journal of Documentation, Vol. 72 (6), 1114 – 1133.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing Graphesis. In this piece, Gorichanaz and Latham propose a phenomenological framework for document analysis. Key concepts of this framework include “intrinsic information, extrinsic information, abtrinsic information, and adtrinsic information,” where information and meaning are distinguished. The authors look at individual documents, but also parts of documents and documents as systems. [JS]

Brown, S. (2015). Remediating the Editor.Interdisciplinary Science Reviews40(1), 78-94.

I found this article by searching Google Scholar for texts citing Graphesis. In this article, Brown purposes that various interfaces for writing and editing influence the interface users – and by extension, the conditions of digital scholarly knowledge production. Brown believes that cultural inflections of these interfaces create “tensions endemic to socialized and networked scholarship [which] is increasingly crucial as reading and consumption merge with writing and production.” [JS]




Bibliography 2/13

Anderson, J. (2015). Understanding cultural geography: places and traces. New York, NY: Routledge.

While searching Google Scholar for citations of Dillard’s Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, I found Anderson’s book, Understanding Cultural Geography: Places and Traces. Anderson’s work discusses the intersections of place, identity, culture, and power. The book examines how individuals experience and understand space through their cultural identities. [LW]

Casebeer, D. (2016). Border Crossings and (Re) crossings: The Post-representational Turn in Social Cartography (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).

I found this dissertation while searching Google Scholar for those books and articles that cite Drucker. In his dissertation, Casebeer discusses the implications of mapping places and space. He examines the culture of cartography and discusses new methods of cartography pedagogy that teach the ways in which societies create knowledge in relation to space. [LW]

Eisner, E. (2008). Art and knowledge. Handbook of the arts in qualitative research, 3-12. Retrieved from

I found Eisner’s chapter while searching Google Scholar for citations of Dillard’s book. In this chapter, Eisner examines individual and cultural perceptions and the ways in which such perceptions influence knowledge. Eisner also explores ideas of familiarity and strangeness, and how these ideas influence knowledge construction. [LW]

Jackson, P. W. (2000). John Dewey and the lessons of art. Yale University Press.

I found Jackson’s book, John Dewey and the Lessons of Art, when searching for citations of Dillard’s book in Google Scholar. Jackson examines human experience, particularly, the ways in which humans experience art. In his book, Jackson examines an influential work from the 1930s, and studies the contemporary examination of culture, experience, art, and nature. [LW]


Murphy, P. D. (2009). Ecocritical Explorations in Literary and Cultural Studies: Fences, Boundaries, and Fields. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books.

I also found this book while searching Google Scholar for those books and articles that cite Dillard. Murphy’s collection discusses the ethical implications of cultural definitions of place. Murphy examines the ways in which place and space is represented in literature, and troubles these usages in his discussion. [LW]


Bibliography 2/12

I searched Google Scholar for Graphesis by Johanna Drucker and noticed that the book has been cited 68 times. I  read over a couple of them for Bibliography assignment.

Bowen, T., & Evans, M. M. (2015). What does knowledge look like? Drawing as a means of knowledge representation and knowledge construction. Education for Information, 31(1, 2), 53-72.

I found this book by searching Google Scholar for the works that cited Graphesis. People believe that complex and abstract concepts should be in writing or spoken language but authors have done a study on individuals’ drawings and noticed that visuals explain abstract concepts better. “Drawing is a form of knowledge production that can be used to support learning and further understanding complex or abstract concepts through the production of shared graphic objects and symbols”. [SK]

Drucker, J. (2001). Digital ontologies: The ideality of form in/and code storage: Or: Can graphesis challenge mathesis? Leonardo, 34(2), 141-145. doi:10.1162/002409401750184708

I found this article very interesting as they said digital media achieve authority in American culture because of its function in mathematics. “Since the history of images within Western culture is fraught with charges of deception and illusion, the question arises whether the ontological condition of the digital image, its very existence and identity, challenges this tradition. Or, by contrast, does the material instantiation of images, in their display or output, challenge the truth claims of the mathematically based digital file?”[SK]

Burdick, A. (2015). Meta!meta!meta!: A speculative design brief for the digital humanities. Visible Language, 49(3), 13

Burdick suggests a design approach to combine core concepts from critical theory with “design’s speculative inventiveness” and named it to three Meta processes approach (Meta of critical interpretation, the Meta of speculative reflexive design and the Meta of subject-computer-interface) to begins core humanities concepts with future digital humanities tools. [SK]

Lehman, Barbara. (2015). Visual Literacy and Education: Seeing the World Meets Critical Thinking. UCLA: Education 0249. Retrieved from

This article stressed on the demand of being visually literate in the culture dominated by images and called it a media culture. Lehman suggests a foundational approach to teaching the basics of visual literacy and she emphasizes on “seeing” as an active not passive activity. [SK]

Bowen, T. Introduction: Visual Literacy and Creative Engagements across the Global Village.

It is just 4 pages of an introduction of a book that I found in my Google Scholar research for Graphesis. Tracy Bowen says that visual literacy must be global but visual literacy is both contextual and political.  She states that “ an individual’s visual literacy is informed by the cultural codes, inclusion, exclusions and biases that we have come to live by”. [SK]