Reading Question 3/20

Sousanis discusses several dimensions in his text, and at this point, we arrive at the fifth dimension. These frames illustrate that from the same mind that creates dimensions, it also limits them by our habits (111). Advocating for “plasticity,” we need to lessen our habitual tendencies or learn flexibility. What I am struggling to grasp is then why Sousanis chooses to illustrate/write a graphical book. What do we need to re-learn or be more flexible on in order to comprehend more opportunities than a book for composition? At what point do we stop forming habits?

Brooke Notes 3/13. Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies


Rose, G. (2001). Visual Methodologies. London: Sage Publications.


culture, ocularcentrism, scopic regime, simulacrum, vision, visual culture, visuality


Rose begins Visual Methodologies by defining key terms and giving background on where visuals have served the modern consumer, portrayed viewpoints on cultural order, and the effects of images. Rose leads to her suggestion of a methodology to critically approach visuals by taking them seriously, taking into consideration social context, and remembering oneself as the viewer when analyzing.

Works Cited

Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing. London: British Broadcasting Association andPenguin.

Doane, M.A. (1982) `Film and the masquerade: theorising the female spectator’,Screen 3: 74±87.

Haraway, D. (1989) Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World ofModern Science. London: Routledge.


  • “Jeffrey Hamburger (1997), for example, argues that visual images were central to certain kinds of premodern, medieval spirituality, and Ella Shohat and Robert Stam (1998)have argued forcefully against the Eurocentrism that pervades many discussions of `the visual'” (Rose, 2001, p.8).
  • “In this sort of work, it is argued that a particular, historically specific visuality was central to a particular, ocular-centric culture. In using the notion of culture in this broad sense, however, certain analytical questions become difficult to ask. In particular, culture as whole way of life can slip rather easily into a notion of culture as simply a whole, and the issue of difference becomes obscured” (Rose, 2001, p.13). 


  • Can an image ever be universal or neutral? Haraway claims that images create social difference among class, race, gender, and sexuality, visualizing an argument of order. Can individual’s order be classified in an image of their making?
  • When scholars look on today’s fad of selfies, can they truly apply this methodology of viewing images? It seems that it would be difficult to take all those images seriously and also to discover the context in which the selfie was taken.

Glossary Terms 3/6

Task optimization: Drucker discusses task optimization in her chapter about interfaces. She describes how this concept is a mediation “between information structures and user needs” in the interface (Drucker 148). Based on Jakob Nielson’s work on web usability, scholars who work with interface come to know this term, however it is reductive in that it does not directly address humanistic design. [GMK]

Frame analysis: When explain interface theories, Drucker describes how frame analysis is different when looking at web interfaces as compared to print or film interfaces  (154-155). Frame analysis is “a schematic outline that formalizes certain basic principles of ways we process information into cognitive value or go from stimulus to cognition” (156). She also mentions that two basic conventions of frame analysis are spatial and dynamic relationships (157).

Stop-Write 2/13

Dillard describes her failing drawing compared to her family’s successful portrayals as a lack of being able to see the “artificial obvious.”  She explains that “The point is that I just don’t know what the lover knows; I just can’t see the artificial obvious that those in the know construct” (Dillard 3). Her family seems to understand the artificial obvious, whereas she was unable to identify it while drawing her “lame” horse.
What is the artificial obvious? How does one recognize or construct it on a daily basis?

Reading Question for 2/6

Barry struck me with her observance of point of view in the house fire pictures. She says, “There is also the matter of where the viewer is standing: point of view. All of these things show up without effort–they are already in us” (104). I continuously noticed how she incorporated point of view into all of her students’ assignments (letters, fiction, house fire sketches). Barry recognizes that she cannot necessarily instruct them to view their work in a certain way because viewpoint is innate.

If it is constructed, how does one construct their viewpoint? Is it different between drawing and writing? [GMK]

Brooke Notes-George

George, Diana. “From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in the Teaching of Writing.” College Composition and Communication, vol. 54, no. 1, Sept. 2002, pp. 11–39.

Summary: “In an attempt to bring composition studies into a more thoroughgoing discussion of the place of visual literacy in the writing classroom, I argue that throughout the history of writing instruction in this country the terms of debate typical in discussions of visual literacy and the teaching of writing have limited the kinds of assignments we might imagine for composition.” (George 11)

As George states in her abstract, she explains how visual literacy has been viewed throughout compositions studies’ history. She begins in the 1940s post-World War II with Dick and Jane books recognizing that pictures need to be “read,” moves into the 1950s and ’60s recognizing that television also has images that need to be interpreted, and into the 1980s where students need to be the producers of images and not just the consumers.

NCTE’s primary author on the committee, Neil Postman, made a call for teaching films in the English classroom in 1961 and for assisting students in acquiring “taste and critical judgement” as a “literary experience” through films (17). In 1986, Costanzo wrote a report for NCTE that explained how film and writing are “equal partners” (24).

Classrooms did not foster visual literacy in textbooks or in assignments like George portrays in her 2002 article. She highlights textbooks from the 1950s-1970s that engage writers with pictures in a superficial way, in using it as a prompt or for analysis, but not for composition. In contrast, George assigns a visual argument assignment and is excited by the arguments her first year writing students compose.


Bartholomae, David, and Anthony Petrosky. Ways of Reading. Boston, MA, St. Martin’s Press, 1987.

George, Diana, and Diane Shoos. “Dropping Breadcrumbs in the Intertextual Forest: or, We Should Have Brought a Compass.” Passions, Pedagogies, and Twentieth-First Century Technologies, Edited by Gail Hawisher and Cynthia Selfe, Utah State UP, Logan, UT, 1999, pp. 115–126.


  • “My guess is that many of these difficulties will not ease up in yet another age of back-to-basics talk and threats of outcomes-based funding. Yet, our students will continue to work with whatever technology–much of it primarily visual–they can get their hands on” (George 32).
  • “Literacy means more than words, and visual literacy means more than play” (16).
  • “What was radical about Berger’s work was his insistence on breaking down the barriers that separated high culture (in this case art history) from low (advertising)[…] In this textbook, not only was meaning no longer restricted to the verbal, the visual was also not used as a gentle step into the ‘more serious’ world of the verbal” (George 23).


  • George explains the influence of design, making an example out of the formatting of a research paper. How can one break the idea of “academic decorum” with research papers and make it mainstream?
  • What are the three R’s she references from Rudolph Flesch?

Big Idea: Barthes & Sontag

Whether it is because of a memory or an oddity, the punctum is what stands out to the spectator creating an element of recognition. The photographs show pieces of experiences that can be altered (Sontag 2); however, the photographs do not show what is not in the picture, like Barthes remembering fragments of his mother’s movements, but not the rest of the movement or the moment in time (65-66). Neutrality is not a trait of photography as Barthes decries the lack of it in his own body (12); neutrality contradicts punctum.


Hi all!

My name is Geneva Korytkowski, and I am in my last semester at EMU for my master’s in the teaching of writing. Currently, I am working as a high school English teacher at Carlson High School (Downriver area) and as a graduate assistant for Dr. Tucker with the Eastern Michigan Writing Project. Unfortunately for you,  you’ll have to listen to bad stories about my daughter or my school kids. Enjoy!